The true spirit of the azan

By Prof Dr Mohd Tajuddin Mohd Rasdi | MalaysiaKini

Let us be clear on the purpose of the adhan in its original form. According to the hadith (recording of the sayings and actions) of the Prophet Muhammad as documented by Sirah Ishaq:

“When the apostle was firmly settled in Medina and his brethren the emigrants were gathered to him and the affairs of the helpers were arranged, Islam became firmly established.

“Prayer was instituted, the alms tax and fasting were prescribed, legal punishments fixed, the forbidden and the permitted prescribed, and Islam took up its abode with them. It was this clan of the helpers who ‘have taken up their abode (in the city of the prophet) and in the faith’.

“When the apostle first came, the people gathered to him for prayer at the appointed times without being summoned. At first the apostle thought of using a trumpet like that of the Jews who used it to summon to prayer. Afterwards he disliked the idea and ordered a clapper to be made, so it was duly fashioned to be beaten when the Muslims should pray.

“Meanwhile ‘Abdullah b. Zayd b. Tha’laba b. ‘Abdu Rabbihi brother of B. al-Harith heard a voice in a dream, and came to the apostle saying: ‘(In my dream) There passed by me a man wearing two green garments carrying a clapper in his hand, and I asked him to sell it to me. When he asked me what I wanted it for I told him that it was to summon people to prayer, whereupon he offered to show me a better way: it was to say thrice ‘Allah Akbar. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah I bear witness that Muhammad is the apostle of God. Come to prayer. Come to Prayer. Come to divine service. Come to divine service. Allah Akbar. Allah Akbar. There is no God but Allah’.

“When the apostle was told of this he said that it was a true vision if God so willed it, and that he should go with Bilal and communicate it to him so that he might call to prayer thus, for he had a more penetrating voice. When Bilal acted as muezzin ‘Umar heard him in his house and came to the apostle dragging his cloak on the ground and saying that he had seen precisely the same vision. The apostle said, ‘God be praised for that!’”

The main purpose of the azan

It is clear in the hadith that the main purpose of the azan is to call Muslims for prayers at a single time because there was no idea of a mechanical device to tell exact time. The azan was also used to tell people to pray in their homes when there is a calamity or severe weather that makes going to the mosque a dangerous affair as in the following hadith:

“Once on a very cold and stormy night, Ibn Umar pronounced the azan for the prayer and then said ‘Pray in your homes’. He (Ibn Umar) added, ‘On very cold and rainy nights, Allah’s apostle used to order the muezzin to say ‘Pray in your homes’.”

The Malays of the Nusantara region had resorted to the use of the beduk (a tree trunk made hollow to echo the beats or a taboh which is a leather drum in mosques of old). The traditional Malay mosques of old never had a minaret but possessed the ‘rumah taboh’ or a low tower to house the drum.

In one sense, the Malays went against the Prophet’s order of a clapper or drum but because there were no Jewish or Christian tradition to be mistaken with then, the ijtihad of the drum was accepted. This shows that Islam is tolerant of the cultural contexts of the area.

Mosques in China have been found to echo the architecture of the temple form, once again showing the tolerance and magnanimity of Islam. In Spain, when Muslims were in power, there were many churches that were left intact. In Malaysia we see the presence of heritage temples and churches littering the country that proclaims the generosity of Islam.

But what of the antics of extreme Malay NGOs and Malay-based political parties? Burning effigies? Stepping on cow heads with the knowledge that the animal is considered sacred to certain citizens of this country? The Prophet never taught his followers to step on politicians’ pictures or burn effigies or desecrate holy objects of the major religions.

Only once did I find the Prophet’s anger related in this regard and manner, but note that it was in relation to the houses of Muslims who hear the azan but do not come for prayers. In a hadith cited by Bukhari:

Allah’s Apostle said, “By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, I was about to order the collecting of firewood, order someone to pronounce the Azan for the prayer, ask someone to lead the prayer, then I would go from behind and burn the houses of men who did not present themselves for the prayer.”

The issue of the azan is a simple one, but because of ignorance and a sense of cheap political strategies to drum up support, it has been blown out of proportion. The fact remains that in countries such as the US, the azan is not allowed to be pronounced because it is in a non-Muslim areas. Muslims still flock to the mosques because the azan is sounded within the compound only.

A tool of convenience

And even if there is no azan being called, the congregational prayers can still be performed validly. The narrations clearly stipulate that the azan is a tool of convenience and it is not a singular part of the prayer as prescribed to the Prophet and his nation on the Night of Ascension. The azan is not obligatory, though it is still considered important to be called out aloud.

Thus, the request by the non-Muslim lawyer to lower the sound is not a threat to the performance of prayers since everyone now can tell the time of prayers. Besides, in some Malay-dominated areas, the sound of the azan being called by many mosques sometimes creates confusion, to the point that the beauty in its call is jeopardised.

It is time that some kind of ruling about the decibel level of the azan be made in relation to the proximity of various mosques as well as taking into account whether the area is more populated by non-Muslims or not. It is a logical and simple request. And it was made in a letter to Putrajaya in a civil and respectful manner.

What of the answer of some Muslim Malays? Loud threats and burning of effigies! Why are Muslims angry at being labelled as extremists and terrorists by the Western media, when their actions speak volumes and show how the Western media are clearly ‘correct’ in their assessment. But Islam as taught by the Prophet shun these extremities.

I read with interest that a spokesperson of the government denied that the government had ordered the sound to be lowered. I also read in Harakahdaily that a PAS Youth leader condemned Putrajaya and the BN government for giving in to the request by the MCA lawyer.

To me, if the BN government did order the volume to be lowered then they would have acted within the true spirit of Islam as taught by the Prophet. But then, the government spokesmen had denied so.

I am completely surprised and taken aback by the PAS Youth’s condemnation of the alleged move to lower the sound. PAS had shown great magnanimity and true spirit of tolerance in the ‘Allah’ issue, the Teo Nie Ching Mosque issue, the ‘aerobics in the mosque compound’ issue, the church-burning issue, the cow-head incident, and many more.

But the PAS Youth leader has made PAS to be as bad as another Malay political party as well as Perkasa. I hope the senior leaders of PAS can quickly make a clear statement of magnanimity and generosity of Islam as shown in the other incidents.

We must take heed of what Imam Ghazali recorded in his Ihya Ulumuddin as follows:

“One night Said Al-Musayyab heard Umar Abdul Aziz reciting aloud the Qur’an in the Mosque of the Prophet. Said ordered his son to go to the person who was praying and tell him to lower his voice in recitation. His son replied that the mosque is a public place and that they had not a single right to it and furthermore, the man who was reciting was the Governor of Medinah.

“Said then called onto the reciter and said,” O you who is praying. If you desire that Allah The Most High accept your prayer, then lower your voice. If you desire that the people accept you, the people are only in need of Allah.” When Umar, the Governor of Medinah, heard this advice, he shortened his superragotary prayer and lowered his voice in recitation.”

How beautiful was the action of the governor who heeded the reminder of his subject without throwing a tantrum and proclaiming that one must listen and respect the Qur’anic recitation at all times. This is about one Muslim reminding a Muslim leader not to disturb people during their times of sleep.

Elements out to stir unrest

There are elements in this country out to use Islam in order to stir racial unrest. Of that fact it is very clear to me, an educated father of five. We Malaysians must protect the safety of our children from these elements of extremism at all costs.

Muslim parents and citizens of Malaysia must look long and hard at their religion as taught by the Prophet because some religious scholars and political leaders are clearly presenting Islam in a very negative sense to serve their own material agendas.

I beg also of all non-Muslim to be patient and ignore these extremist elements and continue to be civil in their discourse and discussion of Islam in the public arena.

As a Malaysian citizen who is a follower of Islam, I welcome civilised discussions and questions or even ‘complaints’ about my religion. Let us manage them maturely. Just as Malaysia is entering her adulthood, we also must not handle matters in the manner of little children throwing tantrums. The more so when there are childish adults who are out to capitalise on ignorance and suspicions.

PROF DR MOHAMAD TAJUDDIN MOHAMAD RASDI is a 23-year veteran academic and teaches architecture at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. He specialises in mosque and Islamic architecture particularly that which relates to Malaysia using a hadith-based and socio-cultural approach in order to create the total idea of built environment suited for a whole social structure. He is the author of ‘The Mosque as a Community Centre’ (1998).

  1. #1 by dagen on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 11:49 am

    Dear Prof Tajuddin,

    Your call for dB control on azan calls is welcoming. But I fear that by doing so you hv violated the laws of islam jenis umno. That makes you a traitor to the umno race (confusingly decribed as the malay race).

    • #2 by cemerlang on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 9:51 pm

      You believe in the truth and not what others tell you or what becomes a habit and a daily ritual of life to you. Or made to believe what your heart cannot understand and cannot seem to accept but you have no other choice.

  2. #3 by ktteokt on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 11:55 am

    Just wondering if Nabi Mohamed had LOUDSPEAKERS fixed on the minarets of his mosque to contribute to noise pollution! But think again, electricity was not even available then. So, this loudspeaker stuff would be a DEVIATION from his original teachings, wouldn’t it?

    • #4 by ahmad_sirhind on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 1:03 pm

      It is not a deviation teo, to make it easier for u to understand, using loudspeaker=1 point while Prophet Muhammad method=700 points. answering the azan by going to prayer is the most important parts that most of muslim forget.

    • #5 by cemerlang on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 9:52 pm

      Or all alone in the desert with nothing like I have said previously. How would you know it is azan ?

      • #6 by ahmad_sirhind on Wednesday, 19 January 2011 - 12:56 pm

        There is always the sun n the moon to tell the time.

  3. #7 by undertaker888 on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 12:31 pm

    God can even read our mind before we even ask or pray. so why need a loudspeaker to blare? and of course there are always hypocrites around, especially the you know who type…

    • #8 by cemerlang on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 9:53 pm

      Reminder is kindness but do not forget you are living with non believers.

  4. #9 by Bigjoe on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 12:47 pm

    I say the big issue is not even the shouting about the whole issue. The big issue is why the BONE-HEADED so-called lawyer did not go to the mosque and talk to them about what he wanted? What is so hard about going to the imam to discuss the need to sleep?

    THEN the bone-headed MCA man followed up his idiocy with act of dishonest cowardice of smiling and lying in front of the media and going out of his way to get the problem over with. The bone-head started the whole thing by being lazy mind and character and followed it up with cowardly self-preserving avoidance.

    The issue is THESE people – the ones shouting and the bone head – they run this country, they decide important things for us. Do we think these are the people that will fix the problems and face the challenges of this country or ANYONE else?

    • #10 by cemerlang on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 9:57 pm

      Facing the imam is facing all the Muslims out there.

      • #11 by ahmad_sirhind on Wednesday, 19 January 2011 - 1:21 pm

        Why dont we do it from backward instead?facing the muslim instead of imam? the title imam exist because there is muslim community, without muslim, there will be no imam. if corrupted muslim community choose an imam, for sure the imam will be among the corrupted one…..we are giving the power in choosing a leader to corrupted people that is why we end up with a corrupted PM.

  5. #12 by Cinapek on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 12:54 pm

    “..Muslim parents and citizens of Malaysia must look long and hard at their religion as taught by the Prophet because some religious scholars and political leaders are clearly presenting Islam in a very negative sense to serve their own material agendas…..”

    Never a truer statement made. It is not just the religious scholars or political leaders who suffer from this malady but also many average Muslims have succumbed to this ill. For at the root cause of this problem is the incessant chant of “ketuanan” and any attempt at civilised discourse on issues of disagreement is perceived as a challenge to this flawed mentality and consequently, the beauty of the religion of Isalm is the victim. For these bigots with this “ketuanan” baggage, they have exploited the religious angle for their own ends and drag the religion into the gutters with them.

    • #13 by cemerlang on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 9:58 pm

      It is emotions. You need to check on those emotions and be level headed when discussing this sensitive issue because emotions are sensitive.

  6. #14 by AhPek on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 1:15 pm

    In the first place why does Ng Kian Nam an MCA member and a victim in this case have to apologise to the perpetrator,the Imam (the man who purportedly up the volume of the speaker so that every Muslim in the area can hear the call) who shortens his sleep every night? It’s a genuine request from him.
    Maybe he isn’t a lawyer or maybe he hasn’t the b- – -s to face up to the mob that might turn amok!

    • #15 by cemerlang on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 9:59 pm

      The imam is just doing his work and what is expected of him and he wants to go to heaven.

  7. #16 by boh-liao on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 1:51 pm

    Over d issue of d azan, we saw loud threats n burning of effigies by some angry Muslims
    Were they PAS, Perkosa, UmnoB members?

    Imagine an incident like dis happening in Kampung Baru: a van spray-painted with expletives (like Mati); guess what’s d outcome?

    In Sg, life goes on, no emotional outbursts, protests, burning of effigies
    D police issued a stern warning, said they viewed such incidents ‘seriously’ and will investigate d matter ‘thoroughly’

    • #17 by cemerlang on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 10:00 pm

      The media shows all this and people imitate them.

  8. #18 by boh-liao on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 1:58 pm

    D issue was solved
    No anti-racial or anti-religious riots, no burning of effigies, no waving of keris

  9. #19 by tak tahan on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 2:09 pm

    What does the sultan,protector of islam says about the burning effigies?Sickening incident with only uncivillised people will do that.In US or other parts of Europe,they will be bashed and dragged into jail for causing civil unrest.What a stone age mentality they posses or are they thinking they are the heroes in 21century?They will be doing now and then the dirty job for umno master without clearly thinking they would perpetually tarnish the islam image by their own cause.

  10. #20 by dagen on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 2:17 pm

    Come to think of it I hv never heard of ketuanan in the past. Not in the seventies. Nor eighties. In fact nor a good part of the nineties. Wasnt it sometime in the late nineties that this expression became popular? And ever since then umnoputras spoke as though ketuanan umnoputras has been around from the begining. The fact of the matter is, it wasnt. And so began the desperate / ridiculous attempt to relate the words “special position of the malays …” in the constitution to ketuanan rights. Wots worse now is this: Every assertion of right that cannot be supported by logic or sense or reason will be claimed under the umbrella of ketuanan rights. And (now this is important) the right concerned cannot be questioned at all. That means umno can create all sorts of new rights (rights that never exist before). Even jib got for himself a brand new veto right. The loud azan call is also an unquestionable ketuanan umno right. Just like to right to eat rambutans.

    But hey, ketuanan rights have no extra-territorial effects. A retired swiss banker handed two thousand accounts data to wikileak for publishing. Wow. Lets hope amongst them are accounts held in the name of some umno politicians.

  11. #21 by yhsiew on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 3:30 pm

    ///“Last Thursday, Mahadi Abdullah said the mosque lowered the volume following orders from Jawi… Jawi should have issued proper guidelines about the azan to be used nationwide to avoid further confusion,” Nurul Izzah (picture) said in an open letter to Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Razak./// The Malaysian Insider

    BN practiced double standards.

    When MCA lawyer, Ng Kian Nam, demanded that the azan volume from a Kampung Kerinchi mosque near his house be lowered, the Federal Territory Religious Department (Jawi) did it for him.

    When Teresa Kok did not ask for the azan volume from a mosque to be lowered, the government arrested her under ISA.

  12. #22 by rubini on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 4:18 pm

    In the UK, sound levels are controlled irrespective whether its azan ro the Big Ben. Frequency of sound can have a deafening effect on individuals & high frequency can cause harm to the individual. this is science, not politics!

  13. #23 by ahmad_sirhind on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 4:21 pm

    Umar Al-Khattab is 1 of d great Khalifa n a close companion of Muhammad (PBUH). When Jerusalem was handovered to him during his era he went to 1 of the big church and met a pastor. the pastor offered him to conduct the prayer inside the church but he refused, instead he conducted his prayer on the church compound. There is no church demolition and burning during that day eventhough he has all the power to do it instead he conduct prayer on the church compound. My fellow muslim in Malaysia should think of this event and act accordingly.

  14. #24 by Sallang on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 4:43 pm

    ‘Besides, in some Malay-dominated areas, the sound of the azan being called by many mosques sometimes creates confusion, to the point that the beauty in its call is jeopardised’.

    ‘Muslims still flock to the mosques because the azan is sounded within the compound only.’

    I hope our Muslim brothers in Malaysia will accept this, some day.

  15. #25 by tak tahan on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 5:20 pm

    Godfather,waterfrontcoolie,welcome our friend in the posting below.He just got up from slumber under the shade of rambutan tree.

  16. #26 by Godfather on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 5:47 pm

    Beh Tahan: Where is our friend’s posting ? I see him still squatting under the rambutan tree smoking his cheeroot.

  17. #27 by Godfather on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 5:52 pm

    You can pray 5 times a day, and you can turn the volume of the loudspeaker to maximum, but a crook is still a crook, no matter how outwardly religious he professes to be.

    • #28 by cemerlang on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 10:02 pm

      God is sporting. He allows us to fool Him.

  18. #29 by Jong on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 6:19 pm

    Interestingly, why did MCA lawyer Ng Kian Nam suddenly wriggle out from the original topic of his initial concern over the loud volume of mosque speakers that’s disturbing his early morning sleep?
    Why is he now apologising to ‘all Muslims’ for the “confusion” over Azan and Kuliah Subuh? Was there a confusion to begin with?

    Mr Ng Kian Nam should stick to his point, and like a true gentleman, sit down for serious discussion with the proper authorities to look into rectifying the problem and find an amicable solution eg regulating volume of the mosque speakers.

    How did confusion come about? Isn’t it obvious he changed his stance due to a mob hurling hostile threats and placards at him? Ng Kian Nam has demonstrated he’s another typical spineless MCA politician; when they can’t even settle their own problems, how do we expect them to look into ours, …the Rakyat’s?

    Wonder what Mr 1Malaysia, our Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak has to say about the Mob demonstration flashed across all mainstream media and blogs? Was that not illegal demonstration? Guess when it comes to BN, semua OK huh?

  19. #30 by sotong on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 6:23 pm

    Azan is a petty issue…..militant religious extremists would not response reason, they are out to create trouble.

  20. #31 by AhPek on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 6:31 pm

    Yea,Godfather,by being ostentatiously religious,the crook can tell the world he is a good man,so he thinks.Tell me why do you think our Khir Toyo religiously gets to Mecca
    yearly during his MBship if not for the fact of
    wanting to start his new year on a clean slate to start his plundering once again.

  21. #32 by Godfather on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 6:32 pm

    Ng Kian Nam wasn’t the only problem. The entire MCA wanted to dissociate themselves from this so-called loyal supporter, and even Chua Soiled Lek said publicly that Ng would have to face the music alone. Ng ended up with only one option – apologise, grovel, grovel at the feet of the Malay ultras, and then be “forgiven”. Even while grovelling, Ng came up with a stupid excuse – he did not know that azan was very different from christian hymms and other religious chantings.

    So there we have it – another typical chinaman who grovelled to save his skin so that next time, the mosque in Kerinci could double up the volume of the speakers. It wasn’t right or wrong – merely kowtowing to the Ketuanan race so that this chinaman, like those in the MCA, can partake in the crumbs thrown to the party.

  22. #33 by tak tahan on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 6:48 pm

    Godfather,see you later tonight.Can’t continue with this hanging moderation comment.Need to meet up friend’s friends to register them tommorow.Got one fine RM50 at parking yellow line yesterday plus stupid RM100 investment (gambled away)at my neighbour’son boss gaming outlet.Anyway more than anything worthy to convince them and open up their eyes.What la.. no proper parking place nearby the DAP centre.

  23. #34 by DAP man on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 7:48 pm

    Prof Tajuddin,
    I respect you. This piece is a breath of fresh air in the putrid atmosphere created by UMNO.

    Why do men who claim to be religious defend Islam in an unreligious way?

    Religion is defended by the way one leads his life, not by stomping on cow’s head and burning effigies or cursing and swearing or calling for blood.

    • #35 by cemerlang on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 10:05 pm

      Because sadly it is taught in the holy book.

  24. #36 by Dipoh Bous on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 9:36 pm

    “In Malaysia we see the presence of heritage temples and churches littering the country that proclaims the generosity of Islam.” (Prof.Dr Mohd)

    …I wonder what this “littering the country” means?

  25. #38 by limkamput on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 10:21 pm

    We must get our bearing right. How much of what we are debating today is really about god and our faith and how much was really about bigotry, intolerance or arrogance. Can we expect others to be tolerant when we are arrogant? There is a God (we don’t call him religion) that taught me this, “…when you pray do not be like the hypocrites, for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and on the street corners to be seen by men. ….when you pray, go to your room, close the door and pray to your Father, who is unseen. Then your Father, who sees what is done in secret, will reward you.”

    • #39 by cemerlang on Wednesday, 19 January 2011 - 12:20 am

      Your god and their god is different because if it is the same god, the same god cannot contradict himself. Therefore they will not listen to you because your teaching is not found in their holy book. So they will not understand you and they will continue in their rituals of doing everything holy in the eyes of you and me. They say it is the truth. Even from the beginning of time, they have been fighting for what they think is the truth. They claim that that is the tomb of Jesus Christ. Amazing, isn’t it ? for people who cannot accept Him as being more than a human being.

      • #40 by ahmad_sirhind on Wednesday, 19 January 2011 - 1:09 pm

        Let us forget about differences coz it attract arguments, n arguments attract hatred, n hatred attracts war. Lets focus on our similarity so that we can blend together.

  26. #41 by tak tahan on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 10:26 pm

    Typo mistake.sorry.Actually should be ‘di letak ing” instead littering,Minta maaf.Sikit sikit mesti ada kesilapan typing ma.Dak tua pun,tau la kan?

    Pok Su Dr Mohd Tajuddin

  27. #42 by tak tahan on Tuesday, 18 January 2011 - 11:28 pm

    Chill down with this song man for a while;

  28. #43 by Ray on Wednesday, 19 January 2011 - 11:05 am

    Indeed Azan is unnecessary annoying noise early in the wee hours really disturding good sleeps without respects to other communities ….\ other faith do not practise these loud speaker religious ritual prayer..
    yr allah is not deaf and JUST sitting next to you so yr need not be so Hypocritical in doing so….
    God will beautify you in truth and faithfulness living harmoniously with others.
    I suggest Umno should follow Singapura Policy as a good example.. .For goodness sake

    • #44 by ahmad_sirhind on Wednesday, 19 January 2011 - 1:12 pm

      God is doing that, beautify us in truth and faithfulness but we mess it up. People dont blame car when there is an accident, the driver is to be blamed.

    • #45 by cemerlang on Wednesday, 19 January 2011 - 9:03 pm

      Thank you. No need alarm clock. Save the money to pay for the electricity and lights used because of so early in the morning. No need to follow Singapore because money standard not the same.

  29. #46 by tak tahan on Wednesday, 19 January 2011 - 10:17 pm

    Luckily at my place,the orang tua tua sulah piki.No need loud speaker anymore to arouse the younger one.The new generations are still hang over from dam or something else.. ais, name them la..I heard a low azan this early morning and closed my ear with pillow.Luckily i do get up early evry morning to fetch my dad for breakfast but i overslept this morning,maybe azan..i supposed.

  30. #47 by tak tahan on Friday, 21 January 2011 - 1:18 am

    The last time i remembered the azan was so loud in the middle of early morning,i thought my mother calling me from her room to my room.Can you imagine that inside the house compound,least to say almost triple or more decibel from xxtimes loud speaker with turbo booster.Wak lau eh..mai kong la..

  31. #48 by Ray on Saturday, 22 January 2011 - 7:03 pm

    so sorry to point out yr stupidity and evil umnoistislamic ideology,
    This is WHY THIS Tiny Singapura NATION AND money strength / rate is 2.38 times yr Malusai ringgit….CAN YOUR umnoputra CHALLENGE with this mighty nation.

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